Suburbs Research Bibliography
This list of articles and books were either consulted or used in relation to the various forms and methods attempted during this research project.

Airas, A. (2021). “Every city is allowed one”? Creating waterfront suburbias in the Vancouver region. Canadian Journal of Urban Research30(2), 42–61.

Allen J, Taylor Z (2018). A New Tool for Neighbourhood Change Research: The Canadian Longitudinal Census Tract Database, 1971-2016. The Canadian Geographer. doi:10.1111/cag.12467

Bagley, M. N., P.L. Mokhtarian & R. Kitamura (2002). “A Methodology for the Disaggregate, Multidimensional Measurement of Residential Neighbourhood Type” Urban Studies 39:4, 689-704.

Barnett J, Beasley L (2015). Ecodesign for Cities and Suburbs. Washington DC: Island Press.

Beauregard, R.A. (2006). When America Became Suburban. London: University of Minnesota Press.

Berger A, Gordon DLA (2021) Sustainable Suburbia, New Geography, 10 October 2021.

Blais, P (2010). Perverse Cities: Hidden Subsidies, Wonky Policy, and Urban Sprawl. Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Boarnet, M. & R. Crane (2001). Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bollman, R. (2007). “The Demographic Overlap of Agriculture and Rural” Statistics Canada Agriculture Division, 21-601-MIE, no. 81.

Borwein, S., & Lucas, J. (2023). Asymmetries in urban, suburban, and rural place-based resentment. Political Geography, 105, 102904.

Bourne, L. (2001). The Urban Sprawl Debate. Plan Canada, 41:4, 26-8.

Bourne, L., & Ley, D. (1993). The Changing Social Geography of Canadian Cities. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Press.

Bozikovic, A, Case, C., Lorinc, J., & Vaughan, A. (2019). House Divided: how the missing middle can solve Toronto’s affordability crisis. Coach House Books.

Bray, R. (2005) “Report on Public Health and Urban Sprawl in Ontario” Environmental Health Committee, Ontario.

Breugemann, R. (2005). Sprawl: A Compact History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Brook McIlroy and City of Toronto Planning Dept. (2011). Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study. Toronto: City of Toronto.

Brueckner, J (2000). Urban Sprawl: Diagnosis and Remedies. International Regional Science Review 23(2):160-171.

Bunting, T.E., & Filion, P. (1999). Dispersed city form in Canada: A Kitchener CMA case example. Canadian Geographer, 43(3), 268-288.

Bunting, T., & Filion, P. (2006). Canadian Cities In Transition. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Bunting, T., Filion P., & Priston, H. (2002). Density Gradients in Canadian Metropolitan Regions, 1971-96: Differential Patterns of Central Area and Suburban Growth and Change, Urban Studies, 39(13), 2531-2552.

Burchell, R.W. , G. Lowenstein and C. Galley (eds.) (2002). The Costs of Sprawl 2000, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, Report 74.

Canadian Public Health Association (2012). Canadian Evidence on Built Environment and Health. Canadian Journal of Public Health 103(3).

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers (CSCE), et al. (2019). Canadian Infrastructure Report Card.

Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P., Hand, S. (2007) “Do Changes in Neighborhood Characteristics lead to Changes in Travel Behaviour? A Structural Equations Modeling Approach” Transportation, 34, 535-556.

CMHC Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (2006a). Accessory-Apartments-Policy, Guelph; The Renaissance at North Hill, Calgary; Harmony, Toronto; Residential Intensification — Case Studies. Ottawa: CMHC.

CMHC Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (2006b). Brandt’s Creek Crossing, Oliver Village; Wellington Square; Spencer Creek Village; Quai des Éclusiers, Brownfield Redevelopment for Housing: Case Studies. Ottawa: CMHC.

CMHC Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (2010). The Bridges, Calgary; Village de la Gare, Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec; Time, North Vancouver, British Columbia; Transit Oriented Development: Case Studies. Ottawa: CMHC.

CMHC Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (2011). Olde Thornhill Village, Markham; Lakeshore Village, Oakville; Greyfield Redevelopment for Housing in Canada — Case Studies, Ottawa: CMHC.

Colley, R. C., Christidis, T., Michaud, I., Tjepkema, M., & Ross, N. A. (2019). An examination of the associations between walkable neighbourhoods and obesity and self-rated health in Canadians. Health reports, 30(9), 14-24.

Collins, P.A., Tait, J., Fein, A. et al. (2018). Residential moves, neighbourhood walkability, and physical activity: a longitudinal pilot study in Ontario Canada. BMC Public Health 18, 933, 1-11.

Crane, R. (2000). “The Influence of Urban Form on Travel: An Interpretive Review”, Journal of Planning Literature, 15(3).

Creatore MI, Glazier RH, Moineddin R, et al. (2016) Association of Neighborhood Walkability With Change in Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association; 315(20):2211–2220. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.5898

Dalbey, M., Hiler, H., Jones, D., Shoup, D. (2009) “The Car and the City, Rethinking the Automobile and Its Impact” Journal of Planning History, 8(2), 162-168.

De Sousa C (2008). Brownfields Redevelopment and the Quest for Sustainability. London: Emerald Group.

De Sousa, C. A., & Ridsdale, D. R. (2021). An examination of municipal efforts to manage brownfields redevelopment in Ontario, Canada. Canadian Journal of Urban Research30(1), 99-114.

Delacourt S (2013). Shopping for Votes: How Politicians Choose Us and We Choose Them. Vancouver BC: Douglas & McIntyre. 

Dittmar H, Ohland G (2004). The new transit town: Best practices in transit-oriented development. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Donald, B. (2002). “Spinning Toronto’s golden age: the making of a city that worked'” Environment and Planning A 34(12) 2127 – 2154.

du Plessis, V., R. Beshiri, R. Bollman & H. Clemenson (2001). Definitions of Rural Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, 3:3 Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Catalogue 21-006-XIE.

du Plessis, V., R. Beshiri, R. Bollman & H. Clemenson (2002). Definitions of Rural Ottawa: Statistics Canada Agriculture and Rural Working Paper 61, Catalogue 21-601-MIE2002061.

Duany, A, E. Plater-Zyberk and J. Speck (2000). Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press.

Duany A, Plater-Zyberk E & Speck J (2010). Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point.

Duany A, Speck J & Lydon M (2009). The Smart Growth Manual. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Duckworth-Smith A (2016). Sprawl and the City. Perth AU: UWA Publishing University of Western Australia.

Dunham-Jones E, Williamson J (2011). Retrofitting Suburbia: Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Environment Canada (2023). National Inventory Report 1990–2021: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada. Ottawa. Environment Canada, 77.

Ewing R, Meakins G, Hamidi S & Nelson, AC (2014). Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity – Update and Refinement. Health and Place, 26(Complete), 118-126. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2013.12.008

Ewing, R and R. Cervero (2001). Travel and the built environment: a synthesis, Transportation Research Record. No. 1780.

Filion, P. (2001). “Suburban Mixed-Use Centres and Urban Dispersion: What Difference Do They Make?” Environment and Planning A 33, 141-160.

Filion, P., & Bunting T. (2006). Understanding 21st Century Urban Structure: Sustainability, Unevenness, Uncertainty. In T. Bunting & P. Filion, Canadian Cities in Transition: Global through Local Perspectives. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Filion, P., Bunting, T., & Warriner, K. (1999). “The Entrenchment of Urban Dispersion: Residential Preferences and Location Patterns in the Dispersed City”, Urban Studies, 36(8), 1317-1347.

Filion, P. & K. Hammond (2003). “Neighbourhood Land Use and Performance: The Evolution of Neighbourhood Morphology over the Twentieth Century” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 271-296.

Filion, P. & K. McSpurren (2007). “Smart Growth and Development Reality: The Difficult Co-ordination of Land Use and Transport” Urban Studies, 44:3.501-523.

Filion, P. , K. McSpurren & B. Appleby (2006). “Wasted density? The impact of Toronto’s residential density distribution policies on transit use and walking”, Environment and Planning A 38, 1367-1392.

Filion, P., McSpurren, K., Bunting, T. & Tse, A. (2004). Canada-US metropolitan density patterns: zonal convergence and divergence? Urban Geography 25:1, 42–65.

Filion, P., Bunting, T., Pavlic, D., & Langlois, P. (2010) “Intensification and Sprawl: Residential Density Trajectories in Canada’s Largest Metropolitan Regions” Urban Geography 31:1.

Forsyth A (2012). Defining Suburbs. Journal of Planning Literature 27(3): 270-281. doi:10.1177/0885412212448101

Frank, L. & H. Frumkin (2004). Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities, Washington DC: Island Press.

Frank LD, Devlin A, Johnstone S & van Loon J (2010). Neighbourhood Design, Travel, and Health in Metro Vancouver: Using a Walkability Index. Active Transportation Co-laboratory, UBCan.

Fraterrigo, E. (2008) “The Answer to Suburbia: Playboy’s Urban Lifestyle” Journal of Urban History, 34(5), 747-774.

Friedman, A. (2002). Planning the New Suburbia: Flexibility by Design, Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Galster, G., Hanson, R., Ratcliffe, M., Wolman, H., Coleman, S., & Freihage, J. (2001). “Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and Measuring an Elusive Concept” Housing Policy Debate, 12:4, 681-718.

Gans, H. (1968) “Urbanism and Suburbanism as Ways of Life: A Reevaluation of Definitions” People and Plans.

Ghitter, G. & Smart, A. (2009) “Mad Cows, Regional Goverance, and Urban Sprawl: Path Dependence and Unintended Consequences in the Calgary Region” Urban Affairs Review, 44, 617-646.

Giles-Corti B, et al. (2013). The Influence of Urban Design on Neighbourhood Walking Following Residential Relocation: Longitudinal Results from the RESIDE Study. Journal of Social Science & Medicine 77: 20–30.

Gordon DLA (2004). “Implementing Urban Waterfront Redevelopment,” in Remaking the Urban Waterfront. Washington DC: Urban Land Institute, 80-99.

Gordon DLA, (2017). “Transport Defines Suburbia” in A Berger, Guzmán CB  & J Kotkin, (eds.). Infinite Suburbia. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 222-231.

Gordon DLA (2018). “Canadians increasingly live in the auto-dependent suburbs” The Conversation, October 9, 2018.

Gordon DLA, Janzen M (2013). Suburban Nation? Estimating the size of Canada’s suburban population. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 30 (3): 197-220.

Gordon DLA, Maginn P & Biermann S (2015).  “Estimating the Size of Australia’s Suburban Population” PATREC Perspectives. October 2015

Gordon, DLA & Tamminga, K (2002). Large-scale traditional neighbourhood development and pre-emptive ecosystem planning: The Markham experience, 1989-2001. Journal of Urban Design7(3), 321-340.

Gordon DLA, Vipond S (2005). Gross Density and New Urbanism: Comparing Conventional and New Urbanist Suburbs in Markham, Ontario. Journal of the American Planning Association 71(2): 41-54.

Gordon DLA, Willms C, & Lin S (2019). “Suburban Growth in Canada’s Mid-sized Cities” Council for Canadian Urbanism Working Paper #3, May 2019, 50 pp.

Gordon, P. & H. Richardson (1997). “Are Compact Cities a Desirable Planning Goal?” Journal of the American Planning Association, 63:1 95-106.

Grant, J. (2007). “An American effect: contextualizing gated communities in Canadian planning practice” Canadian Journal of Urban Research 16:1, 1-19.

Grant, J. (2006) “Promises and Prospects: New Urbanism in Practice” Working Paper.

Grant, J. (2006). Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice, New York: Routledge.

Grant, J. (1999) “Can Planning Save the Suburbs?” Plan Canada, 30:4, 16-18.

Grant, J., K. Greene & K. Maxwell (2004). “The Planning and Policy Implications of Gated Communities,” Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13:1, 70-88.

Grant J (2009). Theory and Practice in Planning the Suburbs: Challenges to Implementing New Urbanism, Smart Growth, and Sustainability Principles. Planning Theory & Practice 10(1): 11-33.

Grant J, Holme R, & Pettman A (2008). Global Theory and Local Practice in Planning in Halifax: The Seaport Redevelopment. Planning Practice & Research 23(4): 517-532.

Grant J, Nelson AC, Forsyth A, Thompson-Fawcett M, Blais P & Filion P (2013). The future of the suburbs. Planning Theory & Practice 14(3): 391-415. doi:10.1080/14649357.2013.808833

Grant J, Perrott K (2009). Producing diversity in a new urbanism community: policy and practice. Town Planning Review 80(3): 267-289.

Grant J, Perrott K (2011). Where is the Café? The challenge of making retail uses viable in mixed-use suburban developments. Urban Studies 48(1): 177-195.

Hancock, M. (1994). “Don Mills: A Paradigm of Community Design,” Plan Canada, Special Issue, 87-90.

Handy, S. (1996) “Methodologies for Exploring the Link Between Urban Form and Travel Behaviour” Transportation Research Part D, 1(2) 151-165.

Handy, S. (2005) “Correlation or Causality Between the Built Form Environment and Travel Behaviour? Evidence from Northern California” Transportation Research Part D, 10, 427-444.

Harris, R. (1996). Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto’s American Tragedy, 1900 To 1950 Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Harris, R., (2004). Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban 1900-1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Harris, R., & Forrester, D. (2003). The Suburban Origins of Redlining: A Canadian Case Study, 1935-54. Urban Studies, 40(13), 2661-2686.

Harris, R., & Larkham, P.J. (1999). Changing Suburbs: Foundation, Form, and Function. London: Routledge.

Hayden, D. (2003). Building Suburbia Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000, New York: Vintage.

Heisz, A.& S. Larochelle-Côté (2005). Work and Commuting in Census Metropolitan Areas, 1996-2001, Ottawa: Statistics Canada no.89-613-MIE, no. 007.

Hess P (2008). Fronts and Backs: the use of streets, yards and alleys in Toronto area New Urbanist neighbourhoods. Journal of Planning Education and Research 28(2) 196-212.

Hess, P., Piper, M., & Sorensen, A. (2023). Can We Retrofit Suburban Arterials? Analyzing the Walkability and Retrofit Potential of Four Toronto Region Corridors. Journal of the American Planning Association, 89(1), 16-30.

Hodge, G., & D.L.A. Gordon (2007). Planning Canadian Communities: An Introduction to the Principles, Practice and Participants, Toronto: Nelson.

Hill, D. (1992). “America’s Disorganized Organicists” Journal of Planning Literature, 7(1).

Howell, N. A., & Booth, G. L. (2022). The Weight of Place: Built Environment Correlates of Obesity and Diabetes. Endocrine Reviews, 43(6), 966–983.

Hulchanski D (2010). The Three Cities within Toronto: Income Polarization Among Toronto’s Neighbourhoods, 1970-2005. Toronto: Cities Centre, University of Toronto.

Ibbitson, J. (2018), “City growth dominated by car-driving suburbs, whose votes decide elections” Globe and Mail, August 20, 2018.

Ivanic, E. (2008) “Greening Suburbia? The Environmental Agenda of New Urbanism and Smart Growth” Independent Project, Advisor Jill Grant.

Katz, B., & Lang, R.E. (2003). Redefining Urban and Suburban America: Evidence from Census 2000. Washington: Brookings Institute Press.

Kerr J, Rosenberg D & Frank LD (2012). The Role of the Built Environment in Healthy Aging: Community Design, Physical Activity, and Health among Older Adults. Journal of Planning Literature 27(1) 43-60.

Kiel, R (2018). Suburban Planet: Making the World Urban from the Outside In. New York: Wiley.

Kruse, K.M., & Thomas, S.J. (2006). The New Suburban History. London: University of Chicago Press.

Kunstler, J. H. (1993) The Geography of Nowhere: The rise and decline of America’s man-made landscape, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Lachapelle U, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Sallis JF & Conway TL (2011). Commuting by Public Transit and Physical Activity: Where You Live, Where You Work, and How You Get There. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 8(1): 72-82.

Lang RE, Nelson AC & Sohmer RR (2008). Boomburb downtowns: the next generation of urban centres. Journal of Urbanism 1(1): 77-90.

Leinberger CB (2008). The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream. Washington DC: Island Press.

Leung, H-L. (2003) Land-Use Planning Made Plain, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Levinson, D. & Kumar, A. (1997) “Density and the Journey to Work” Growth and Change, 28:2, 147-172.

Ley, D. & H. Frost (2006). “The inner city” in Bunting, T., & Filion, P. (eds.) Canadian Cities in Transition 3rd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 192 – 210.

Litman, T. (2010) “Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs” Victoria Transit Policy Institute.

Lucy, W.H., & Phillips, D.L. (2006). Tomorrow’s Cities, Tomorrow’s Suburbs. Chicago; Planners Press.

MacDonald JM, Stokes RJ, Cohen DA, Kofner A, & Ridgeway GK (2010). The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 39(2): 105- 112.

McCall, D. (2009) “2006 Census Housing Series: Issue 5- Canada’s Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs)” CMHC Research Highlight Socio-economic Series 09-022.

McCann, L.D. (1996) “Planning and Building the Corporate Suburb of Mount Royal, 1910-1923,” Planning Perspectives, 11, 259-301.

McCann, L.D. (1999) ”Suburbs of Desire: Shaping the Suburban Landscape of Canadian Cities, 1900-1950,” in Richard Harris & Peter Larkham (eds.), Changing Suburbs – Foundation, Form and Function, London: Routledge, 111-45.

McCann. L. D. & P. J. Smith (1991) “Canada becomes Urban: Cities and Urbanization in an Historical Perspective” in Bunting, T. and P. Filion Canadian Cities in Transition, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 69-99.

Mendelson, R. (2001) Geographic Structures as Census Variables: Using Geography to Analyse Social and Economic Processes, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Geography Working Paper Series 2001-1, Catalogue no.: 92F0138MIE2001001.

Millward, H. (2008) “Evolution of Population Densities: Five Canadian Cities, 1971-2001” Urban Geography, 29(7), 616-638.

Moos M, Mendez P (2014). Suburban ways of living and the geography of income: How homeownership, single-family dwellings and automobile use define the metropolitan social space. Urban Studies 52(10): 1864-1882. doi:10.1177/0042098014538679

Moos M, Walter-Joseph R (2017). Still Detached and Subdivided: Suburban Ways of Living in 21st Century North America. Berlin: Jovis.

Moudon, A. (1992) “A Catholic Approach to Organizing What Urban Designers Should Know” Journal of Planning Literature, 6(4).

Muller, P. (2004) “Transportation and urban form: Stages in the spatial evolution of the American metropolis,” in Susan Hanson and Genevieve Giuliano, eds., The Geography of Urban Transportation (New York: Guilford Press, 3rd rev. ed.,), pp. 59-85.

Muzzio, D., Halper, T. “Pleasantville? The Suburbs and Its Representation in American Movies” Urban Affairs Review, 37(4), 543-574.

National Roundtable on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE) (2011). Paying the Price: The Economic Impacts of Climate Change for Canada.

Nelson AC (2009). Catching the Next Wave: Older Adults and the ‘New Urbanism’. Generations 33(4): 37-42.

Nelson AC (2011). The New California Dream: How Demographic and Economic Trends May Shape the Housing Market. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute.

Newman P, Kenworthy J (2015). The End of Automobile Dependence: How Cities are Moving Beyond Car-Based Planning. Washington DC: Island Press.

Nijman, J. (2020).The life of North American suburbs: imagined utopias and transitional spaces (J. Nijman, Ed.). University of Toronto Press.

Nowlan, D. & Greg, S. (1991) “Downtown Population Growth and Communting Trips: Recent Experience in Toronto”, Journal of the American Planning Association, 57(2), 165-182.

The Ohio State University. (2002) “Exurban Change Program – Ohio Maps,” Retrieved November 30, 2009 from Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics:

Ommeren, J., Rietveld, P., & Nijikamp, P. (1997) “Commuting: In Search of Jobs and Residences”, Journal of Urban Economics, 42, 402-421.

Parr, J.B. (2007) “Spatial definitions of the city: four perspectives” Urban Studies .44:2, .381-392.

Perrott, K. (2020). Does New Urbanism” Just Show Up”? Deliberate Process and the Evolving Plan for Markham Centre. Urban Planning5(4S3), 388-404.

Perrott, K. & Grant, J. (2008) “Producing Diversity in a New Urbanism Community: Theory Meets Practice” Working Paper.

PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2002). Greyfields into Goldfields: Dead Malls Become Living Neighborhoods. San Francisco: Congress for New Urbanism.

Pushkarev, B. & Zupan, J. (1977) Public Transportation and Land Use Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD, et al. (2012). Obesogenic Neighborhood Environments, Child and Parent Obesity: The Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 42(5): 57-64.

Sancton, A. (2022). Reassessing the Case for Development Charges in Canadian Municipalities. Canadian Planning and Policy, 2022(1), 137–150.

Sewell, J. (1993) The Shape of the City: Toronto Struggles with Modern Planning, Toronto: U of T Press.

Siemiatycki, M., & Fagan, D. (2019). Transit in the Greater Toronto Area: how to get back on the rails. University of Toronto, Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance.

Smith, P. J. (2006) “Suburbs” in Bunting, T., & Filion, P. (eds.) Canadian Cities In Transition. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 211-233.

Song, Y. & G. Knapp (2007) “Quantitative Classification of Neighbourhoods: The Neighbourhoods of New Single-family Homes in the Portland Metropolitan Area? Journal of Urban Design, 12:1, 1-24.

Statistics Canada (2007) Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006 Ottawa: Statistics Canada Catalogue No 97-550-XIE.

Stone, L.O. (1967). Urban Development in Canada. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics.

Sultana, S., Weber, J. (2007). “Journey-to-Work Patters in the Age of Sprawl: Evidence From Two Midsize Southern Metropolitan Areas”, The Professional Geographer, 59(2), 193-208.

Sweetman, A. & P. de Broucker, (eds.) (2002) Towards evidence-based policy for Canadian education/Vers des politiques canadiennes d’éducation fondées sur la recherche, Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Statistics Canada. (2006) “Commuting Patterns and Places of Work of Canadians, 2006 Census” 97-561-X.

Tachieva G (2010). Sprawl Repail Manual. Washington DC: Island Press.

Tamminga, K. (1996) “Restoring Biodiversity in the Urbanizing Region: Towards Pre-emptive Ecosystems Planning,” Plan Canada, 36:4, 10-15.

Talen, E. (2003) “Measuring Urbanism: Issues in Smart Growth Research” Journal of Urban Design 8:3, 195-215.

Thompson D (2013). Suburban Sprawl: Exposing Hidden Costs, Identifying Innovations. Ottawa: University of Ottawa, Sustainable Prosperity.

Tomalty, R. (2010) “Comparing Canadian New Urbanist and Conventional Suburban Neighbourhoods” CMHC Research Highlight Socio-economic Series 10-003.

Toronto, City (2021) Mall Redevelopment Guide; January 2021.

Torrens, P. (2008) “A Toolkit for Measuring Sprawl” Applied Spatial Analysis, 1, 5-36.

Tsenkova, S., & Elkey, C. (2018). Building great neighbourhoods: Recalibrating Currie, Plan Canada, Spring 2018, 17-20.

Turcotte, M. (2008) “Life in Metropolitan Areas: The City/Suburb Contrast: How Can We Measure it?” Statistics Canada, Canadian Social Trends no. 85.

Turcotte, M. (2008) “Life in Metropolitan Areas: Dependence on Cars in Urban Neighbourhoods” Statistics Canada, Canadian Social Trends no. 85.

Turcotte, M. (2008) “Life in Metropolitan Areas: Are Suburban Residents Really Less Physically Active?” Statistics Canada, Canadian Social Trends no. 85.

Vancouver Planning Department (2011). Cambie Corridor Plan. Vancouver BC: City of Vancouver.

van Loon J, Frank LD (2011). Urban Form Relationships with Youth Physical Activity: Implications for Research and Practice. Journal of Planning Literature 26(3) 280-308.

Varangu, A. (1998). “Taking a Holistic Approach to Suburbs” Journal of Planning Literature, 12(4).

Walks, A. (2004). “Place of Residence, Party Preferences, and Political Attitudes in Canadian Cities and Suburbs” Journal of Urban Affairs, 26:3, 269-295.

Walks, A. (2005). “The City-Suburban Cleavage in Canadian Federal Politics” Canadian Journal of Political Science 38:2.

Walks A (2013). Suburbanism as a Way of Life, Slight Return. Urban Studies 50(8): 1471-1488.

Walks, A. (2007) “The boundaries of suburban discontent? Urban definitions and neighbourhood political effects” The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 51:2, 160–185.

White, R. (2009) “Review Essay: Sprawl: The View From Toronto” Journal of Planning History, 8, 274-285.

Whitehand, J.W. & C. W. Carr (2001). Twentieth-Century Suburbs: A Morphological Approach. New York: Routledge.

Williamson J (2013). Designing Suburban Futures: New Models from Build a Better Burb. Washington DC: Island Press.

Williamson, J., & Dunham-Jones, E. (2021). Case studies in retrofitting suburbia: urban design strategies