Suburbs Research Bibliography
This list of articles and books were either consulted or used in relation to the various forms and methods attempted during this research project.

Bagley, M. N., P.L. Mokhtarian & R. Kitamura (2002). “A Methodology for the Disaggregate, Multidimensional Measurement of Residential Neighbourhood Type” Urban Studies 39:4, 689-704.

Boarnet, M. & R. Crane (2001). Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bollman, R. (2007). “The Demographic Overlap of Agriculture and Rural” Statistics Canada Agriculture Division, 21-601-MIE, no. 81.

Beauregard, R.A. (2006). When America Became Suburban. London: University of Minnesota Press.

Bourne, L. (2001). The Urban Sprawl Debate. Plan Canada, 41:4, 26-8.

Bourne, L., & Ley, D. (1993). The Changing Social Geography of Canadian Cities. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Press.

Bray, R. (2005) “Report on Public Health and Urban Sprawl in Ontario” Environmental Health Committee, Ontario.

Breugemann, R. (2005). Sprawl: A Compact History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bunting, T.E., & Filion, P. (1999). Dispersed city form in Canada: A Kitchener CMA case example. Canadian Geographer, 43(3), 268-288.

Bunting, T., & Filion, P. (2006). Canadian Cities In Transition. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Bunting, T., Filion P., & Priston, H. (2002). Density Gradients in Canadian Metropolitan Regions, 1971-96: Differential Patterns of Central Area and Suburban Growth and Change, Urban Studies, 39(13), 2531-2552.

Burchell, R.W. , G. Lowenstein and C. Galley (eds.) (2002). The Costs of Sprawl 2000, Washington DC: Transportation Research Board, Report 74.

Cao, X., Mokhtarian, P., Hand, S. (2007) “Do Changes in Neighborhood Characteristics lead to Changes in Travel Behaviour? A Structural Equations Modeling Approach” Transportation, 34, 535-556.

Crane, R. (2000). “The Influence of Urban Form on Travel: An Interpretive Review”, Journal of Planning Literature, 15(3).

Dalbey, M., Hiler, H., Jones, D., Shoup, D. (2009) “The Car and the City, Rethinking the Automobile and Its Impact” Journal of Planning History, 8(2), 162-168.

Donald, B. (2002). “Spinning Toronto’s golden age: the making of a city that worked'” Environment and Planning A 34(12) 2127 – 2154.

du Plessis, V., R. Beshiri, R. Bollman & H. Clemenson (2001). Definitions of Rural Rural and Small Town Canada Analysis Bulletin, 3:3 Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Catalogue 21-006-XIE.

du Plessis, V., R. Beshiri, R. Bollman & H. Clemenson (2002). Definitions of Rural Ottawa: Statistics Canada Agriculture and Rural Working Paper 61, Catalogue 21-601-MIE2002061.

Duany, A, E. Plater-Zyberk and J. Speck (2000). Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. New York: North Point Press.

Ewing, R and R. Cervero (2001). Travel and the built environment: a synthesis, Transportation Research Record. No. 1780.

Filion, P. (2001). “Suburban Mixed-Use Centres and Urban Dispersion: What Difference Do They Make?” Environment and Planning A 33, 141-160.

Filion, P., & Bunting T. (2006). Understanding 21st Century Urban Structure: Sustainability, Unevenness, Uncertainty. In T. Bunting & P. Filion, Canadian Cities in Transition: Global through Local Perspectives. Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Filion, P., Bunting, T., & Warriner, K. (1999). “The Entrenchment of Urban Dispersion: Residential Preferences and Location Patterns in the Dispersed City”, Urban Studies, 36(8), 1317-1347.

Filion, P. & K. Hammond (2003). “Neighbourhood Land Use and Performance: The Evolution of Neighbourhood Morphology over the Twentieth Century” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 271-296.

Filion, P. & K. McSpurren (2007). “Smart Growth and Development Reality: The Difficult Co-ordination of Land Use and Transport” Urban Studies, 44:3.501-523.

Filion, P. , K. McSpurren & B. Appleby (2006). “Wasted density? The impact of Toronto’s residential density distribution policies on transit use and walking”, Environment and Planning A 38, 1367-1392.

Filion, P., McSpurren, K., Bunting, T. & Tse, A. (2004). Canada-US metropolitan density patterns: zonal convergence and divergence? Urban Geography 25:1, 42–65.

Filion, P., Bunting, T., Pavlic, D., & Langlois, P. (2010) “Intensification and Sprawl: Residential Density Trajectories in Canada’s Largest Metropolitan Regions” Urban Geography 31:1.

Frank, L. & H. Frumkin (2004). Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities, Washington DC: Island Press.

Fraterrigo, E. (2008) “The Answer to Suburbia: Playboy’s Urban Lifestyle” Journal of Urban History, 34(5), 747-774.

Friedman, A. (2002). Planning the New Suburbia: Flexibility by Design, Vancouver BC: UBC Press.

Galster, G., Hanson, R., Ratcliffe, M., Wolman, H., Coleman, S., & Freihage, J. (2001). “Wrestling Sprawl to the Ground: Defining and Measuring an Elusive Concept” Housing Policy Debate, 12:4, 681-718.

Gans, H. (1968) “Urbanism and Suburbanism as Ways of Life: A Reevaluation of Definitions” People and Plans.

Ghitter, G. & Smart, A. (2009) “Mad Cows, Regional Goverance, and Urban Sprawl: Path Dependence and Unintended Consequences in the Calgary Region” Urban Affairs Review, 44, 617-646.

Gordon, D.L.A. & S. Vipond (2005) “Gross Density and New Urbanism: Comparing Conventional and New Urbanist Suburbs in Markham, Ontario,” Journal of the American Planning Association, 71:2, 41-54.

Gordon, P. & H. Richardson (1997). “Are Compact Cities a Desirable Planning Goal?” Journal of the American Planning Association, 63:1 95-106.

Grant, J. (2007). “An American effect: contextualizing gated communities in Canadian planning practice” Canadian Journal of Urban Research 16:1, 1-19.

Grant, J. (2006) “Promises and Prospects: New Urbanism in Practice” Working Paper.

Grant, J. (2006). Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice, New York: Routledge.

Grant, J. (1999) “Can Planning Save the Suburbs?” Plan Canada, 30:4, 16-18.

Grant, J., K. Greene & K. Maxwell (2004). “The Planning and Policy Implications of Gated Communities,” Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 13:1, 70-88.

Hancock, M. (1994). “Don Mills: A Paradigm of Community Design,” Plan Canada, Special Issue, 87-90.

Handy, S. (1996) “Methodologies for Exploring the Link Between Urban Form and Travel Behaviour” Transportation Research Part D, 1(2) 151-165.

Handy, S. (2005) “Correlation or Causality Between the Built Form Environment and Travel Behaviour? Evidence from Northern California” Transportation Research Part D, 10, 427-444.

Harris, R. (1996). Unplanned Suburbs: Toronto’s American Tragedy, 1900 To 1950 Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Harris, R., (2004). Creeping Conformity: How Canada Became Suburban 1900-1960. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Harris, R., & Forrester, D. (2003). The Suburban Origins of Redlining: A Canadian Case Study, 1935-54. Urban Studies, 40(13), 2661-2686.

Harris, R., & Larkham, P.J. (1999). Changing Suburbs: Foundation, Form, and Function. London: Routledge.

Hayden, D. (2003). Building Suburbia Green Fields and Urban Growth, 1820-2000, New York: Vintage.

Heisz, A.& S. Larochelle-Côté (2005). Work and Commuting in Census Metropolitan Areas, 1996-2001, Ottawa: Statistics Canada no.89-613-MIE, no. 007.

Hodge, G., & D.L.A. Gordon (2007). Planning Canadian Communities: An Introduction to the Principles, Practice and Participants, Toronto: Nelson.

Hill, D. (1992). “America’s Disorganized Organicists” Journal of Planning Literature, 7(1).

Ivanic, E. (2008) “Greening Suburbia? The Environmental Agenda of New Urbanism and Smart Growth” Independent Project, Advisor Jill Grant.

Katz, B., & Lang, R.E. (2003). Redefining Urban and Suburban America: Evidence from Census 2000. Washington: Brookings Institute Press.

Kruse, K.M., & Thomas, S.J. (2006). The New Suburban History. London: University of Chicago Press.

Kunstler, J. H. (1993) The Geography of Nowhere: The rise and decline of America’s man-made landscape, New York: Simon and Schuster.

Leung, H-L. (2003) Land-Use Planning Made Plain, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Levinson, D. & Kumar, A. (1997) “Density and the Journey to Work” Growth and Change, 28:2, 147-172.

Ley, D. & H. Frost (2006). “The inner city” in Bunting, T., & Filion, P. (eds.) Canadian Cities in Transition 3rd ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 192 – 210.

Litman, T. (2010) “Evaluating Public Transit Benefits and Costs” Victoria Transit Policy Institute.

Lucy, W.H., & Phillips, D.L. (2006). Tomorrow’s Cities, Tomorrow’s Suburbs. Chicago; Planners Press.

McCall, D. (2009) “2006 Census Housing Series: Issue 5- Canada’s Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs)” CMHC Research Highlight Socio-economic Series 09-022.

McCann, L.D. (1996) “Planning and Building the Corporate Suburb of Mount Royal, 1910-1923,” Planning Perspectives, 11, 259-301.

McCann, L.D. (1999) ”Suburbs of Desire: Shaping the Suburban Landscape of Canadian Cities, 1900-1950,” in Richard Harris & Peter Larkham (eds.), Changing Suburbs – Foundation, Form and Function, London: Routledge, 111-45.

McCann. L. D. & P. J. Smith (1991) “Canada becomes Urban: Cities and Urbanization in an Historical Perspective” in Bunting, T. and P. Filion Canadian Cities in Transition, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 69-99.

Mendelson, R. (2001) Geographic Structures as Census Variables: Using Geography to Analyse Social and Economic Processes, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Geography Working Paper Series 2001-1, Catalogue no.: 92F0138MIE2001001.

Millward, H. (2008) “Evolution of Population Densities: Five Canadian Cities, 1971-2001” Urban Geography, 29(7), 616-638.

Moudon, A. (1992) “A Catholic Approach to Organizing What Urban Designers Should Know” Journal of Planning Literature, 6(4).

Muller, P. (2004) “Transportation and urban form: Stages in the spatial evolution of the American metropolis,” in Susan Hanson and Genevieve Giuliano, eds., The Geography of Urban Transportation (New York: Guilford Press, 3rd rev. ed.,), pp. 59-85.

Muzzio, D., Halper, T. “Pleasantville? The Suburbs and Its Representation in American Movies” Urban Affairs Review, 37(4), 543-574.

Nowlan, D. & Greg, S. (1991) “Downtown Population Growth and Communting Trips: Recent Experience in Toronto”, Journal of the American Planning Association, 57(2), 165-182.

The Ohio State University. (2002) “Exurban Change Program – Ohio Maps,” Retrieved November 30, 2009 from Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics:

Ommeren, J., Rietveld, P., & Nijikamp, P. (1997) “Commuting: In Search of Jobs and Residences”, Journal of Urban Economics, 42, 402-421.

Parr, J.B. (2007) “Spatial definitions of the city: four perspectives” Urban Studies .44:2, .381-392.

Perrott, K. & Grant, J. (2008) “Producing Diversity in a New Urbanism Community: Theory Meets Practice” Working Paper.

Pushkarev, B. & Zupan, J. (1977) Public Transportation and Land Use Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Sewell, J. (1993) The Shape of the City: Toronto Struggles with Modern Planning, Toronto: U of T Press.

Smith, P. J. (2006) “Suburbs” in Bunting, T., & Filion, P. (eds.) Canadian Cities In Transition. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 211-233.

Song, Y. & G. Knapp (2007) “Quantitative Classification of Neighbourhoods: The Neighbourhoods of New Single-family Homes in the Portland Metropolitan Area? Journal of Urban Design, 12:1, 1-24.

Statistics Canada (2007) Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006 Ottawa: Statistics Canada Catalogue No 97-550-XIE.

Stone, L.O. (1967). Urban Development in Canada. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of Statistics.

Sultana, S., Weber, J. (2007). “Journey-to-Work Patters in the Age of Sprawl: Evidence From Two Midsize Southern Metropolitan Areas”, The Professional Geographer, 59(2), 193-208.

Sweetman, A. & P. de Broucker, (eds.) (2002) Towards evidence-based policy for Canadian education/Vers des politiques canadiennes d’éducation fondées sur la recherche, Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Statistics Canada. (2006) “Commuting Patterns and Places of Work of Canadians, 2006 Census” 97-561-X.

Tamminga, K. (1996) “Restoring Biodiversity in the Urbanizing Region: Towards Pre-emptive Ecosystems Planning,” Plan Canada, 36:4, 10-15.

Talen, E. (2003) “Measuring Urbanism: Issues in Smart Growth Research” Journal of Urban Design 8:3, 195-215.

Tomalty, R. (2010) “Comparing Canadian New Urbanist and Conventional Suburban Neighbourhoods” CMHC Research Highlight Socio-economic Series 10-003.

Torrens, P. (2008) “A Toolkit for Measuring Sprawl” Applied Spatial Analysis, 1, 5-36.

Turcotte, M. (2008) “Life in Metropolitan Areas: The City/Suburb Contrast: How Can We Measure it?” Statistics Canada, Canadian Social Trends no. 85.

Turcotte, M. (2008) “Life in Metropolitan Areas: Dependence on Cars in Urban Neighbourhoods” Statistics Canada, Canadian Social Trends no. 85.

Turcotte, M. (2008) “Life in Metropolitan Areas: Are Suburban Residents Really Less Physically Active?” Statistics Canada, Canadian Social Trends no. 85.

Varangu, A. (1998). “Taking a Holistic Approach to Suburbs” Journal of Planning Literature, 12(4).

Walks, A. (2004). “Place of Residence, Party Preferences, and Political Attitudes in Canadian Cities and Suburbs” Journal of Urban Affairs, 26:3, 269-295.

Walks, A. (2005). “The City-Suburban Cleavage in Canadian Federal Politics” Canadian Journal of Political Science 38:2.

Walks, A. (2007) “The boundaries of suburban discontent? Urban definitions and neighbourhood political effects” The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 51:2, 160–185.

White, R. (2009) “Review Essay: Sprawl: The View From Toronto” Journal of Planning History, 8, 274-285.

Whitehand, J.W. & C. W. Carr (2001). Twentieth-Century Suburbs: A Morphological Approach. New York: Routledge.